Are you one of the many people who love watches? Clock is a timepiece machine, clock one of the oldest technological inventions as well as the oldest. Without the clock we might not know what time it is. Clocks have many types, ranging from watches, wall clocks and clocks also available on the cell phone. At this time the watch has become one of the accessories that will give a good impression of fashion. Clock, a time philosophy that has a fairly long history. Do you know about its history? if not, let’s look at the history below:
History of a clock
There is no exact date on the creation of the first tool to indicate time. However, it is known that a timepiece has existed since five to six thousand years ago with inhabitants inhabiting the Middle East and North Africa. The Egyptians in 3500 BC had a way of showing time in the form of an obelisk. The obelisk is a slender, four-sided, tapered monument whose shadows fall in the sand and show elapsed time. At about the same time (3500 BC) the solar hour was also used.
The sundial consists of a round slab with oblique protrusions from its center. When the sun moves, the shadow that falls on the slab will show time. The sundial, of course, was still used, so in 1500 BC the Egyptians created the first portable sundial, which could be called the grandfather of a watch at this time. Although both of them are considered as a means of indicating time, they are different from other forms that appear later in the sense indicated in daylight, whereas our current clock shows the average solar time, (There are only 4 times in a year when the sundial and hour modern will show the same time).
Our daily life is full of our arrival, departure and busyness. Everything is made based on a schedule that is sometimes right sometimes slow, of course our lives and our days are planned and determined by the time on the clock. The word clock has not been used until the 14th century and its meaning is not as we know it today. The word means “bell” or “alarm”. Even though it has no internal mechanics, the first clock is able to mimic some of the functions of a modern clock, even without accurate accuracy, for example the first alarm clock has existed since ancient times, the design is simple, this clock consists of candles with lines that show the time that has passed .
To “set” the alarm, there are nails fixed to the candle at the intended hour. When the candle burns up to where the nail is embedded, the nail will fall into the tin plate at the bottom, so that the sound of the resulting alarm can wake people to sleep around the alarm. Water clocks are another way people from ancient civilizations mark the time that passes. This clock works with drops of water falling into the container, which slowly raises the buoy that is in the container, then rotates the pointer to indicate time. The oldest known water clock is found in the grave of Amenhotep I.
The first mechanical clock with “escapement” (new power regulating mechanism) appeared in 1285. Escapment is a mechanism that ticks with a steady rhythm and moves the gear wheel forward in a series of jumps of the same length. The first general clock that played the clink of the clock was installed in Milan around 1335 AD, the clock at that time only had one needle, the needle that showed the clock did not show an accurate time.
Only after passing 175 years around the year 1510 this creation was repaired by Peter Henlien from Nuremberg from Germany, with his creation in the form of a clock-driven spring, at that time the clock with a spring was the most accurate. After that the spring clock model was repaired by Jacob Zech from Prague in 1525, he did this using a “spiral pulley”, which would include a pull per unit time, this device turned out to have the desired effect in the form of increased accuracy from the previous tool, even though it was still operating with one clock. Jost Burgi created the first clock with a minute hand in 1577, but it was only after the creation of the pendulum that set the clock in 1656, the minute hand became a practical tool at that time.
In the early 1580s, the Galileo Scientist, with his observational and ingenious abilities, finally inspired by making the pendulum clock for the first time. He found that consecutive pendulum punches always occur in the same amount of time. With this in mind he and Vincenzo (his son), began to draw pictures and models to find a suitable design. Unfortunately, before they were able to make the instrument, Galileo fell ill and died. However, his son did not let his father’s vision go unrealized and produced a working model in 1649.
The concept of Galileo was perfected in 1656 by Christiaan Huygens, who created the first clock that was moved by weight using a pendulum. This creation makes it possible to show time accurately, although it still uses only the hands of a clock. In 1680, the minute hand finally appeared and only a few years later the second hand appeared on the timepiece.
In 1889, Siegmund Rieflier made a pendulum clock with a precision of one / one hundred seconds, shortly after that a double pendulum clock was created by WH Shortt in 1921. This clock operated one primary pendulum and one pendulum under the control of another pendulum and was accurate to several milliseconds a day . Although it began to be replaced with Kuarts needles in the 1930s and 1940s, pendulum clocks are still used today, in fact ancient grandfather pendulum clocks are seen as antique items that are worth collecting.
Kuarts needle operation is based on the nature of the piezoelectric of a crystal, when an electric field is applied to a crystal, its shape changes, otherwise if we press or bend the crystal, this object will produce an electric field, if coupled with an electronic circuit, this interaction causes the crystal to vibrate, producing a signal with a constant frequency that can move the clock. This development is accurate and inexpensive, making it the first choice for timepieces.
in 1 minute there are 60 seconds? but how about 1 day there are 24 hours
In around 1500 BC, the ancient Egyptians used a 12-based number program, and they developed a sundial program shaped like the letter T which was placed on the ground and divided the time between sunrise and sunset into 12 parts. Historians argue, the ancient Egyptians used a 12-based number program based on wanting the total lunar cycle in a year or could also be based on the large number of human finger joints (3 in each finger, not including the thumb) which allows them to count up to 12 using thumb.
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